Max Chernoff discovered that improperly secured shell-escape in LuaTeX may result in arbitrary shell command execution, even with shell escape disabled, if specially crafted tex files are processed.
For Debian 10 buster, this problem has been fixed in version 2018.20181218.49446-1+deb10u1.
We recommend that you upgrade your textlive-bin packages.
For the detailed security status of textlive-bin please refer to its security tracker page at: https://security-tracker.debian.org/tracker/textlive-bin
Further information about Debian LTS security advisories, how to apply these updates to your system and frequently asked questions can be found at: https://wiki.debian.org/LTS