GHSA-45x7-px36-x8w8

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Source
https://github.com/advisories/GHSA-45x7-px36-x8w8
Import Source
https://github.com/github/advisory-database/blob/main/advisories/github-reviewed/2023/12/GHSA-45x7-px36-x8w8/GHSA-45x7-px36-x8w8.json
JSON Data
https://api.osv.dev/v1/vulns/GHSA-45x7-px36-x8w8
Aliases
Related
Published
2023-12-18T19:22:09Z
Modified
2024-07-15T22:00:20.511181Z
Severity
  • 5.9 (Medium) CVSS_V3 - CVSS:3.1/AV:N/AC:H/PR:N/UI:N/S:U/C:N/I:H/A:N CVSS Calculator
Summary
Prefix Truncation Attack against ChaCha20-Poly1305 and Encrypt-then-MAC aka Terrapin
Details

Summary

Terrapin is a prefix truncation attack targeting the SSH protocol. More precisely, Terrapin breaks the integrity of SSH's secure channel. By carefully adjusting the sequence numbers during the handshake, an attacker can remove an arbitrary amount of messages sent by the client or server at the beginning of the secure channel without the client or server noticing it.

Mitigations

To mitigate this protocol vulnerability, OpenSSH suggested a so-called "strict kex" which alters the SSH handshake to ensure a Man-in-the-Middle attacker cannot introduce unauthenticated messages as well as convey sequence number manipulation across handshakes.

Warning: To take effect, both the client and server must support this countermeasure.

As a stop-gap measure, peers may also (temporarily) disable the affected algorithms and use unaffected alternatives like AES-GCM instead until patches are available.

Details

The SSH specifications of ChaCha20-Poly1305 (chacha20-poly1305@openssh.com) and Encrypt-then-MAC (*-etm@openssh.com MACs) are vulnerable against an arbitrary prefix truncation attack (a.k.a. Terrapin attack). This allows for an extension negotiation downgrade by stripping the SSHMSGEXTINFO sent after the first message after SSHMSG_NEWKEYS, downgrading security, and disabling attack countermeasures in some versions of OpenSSH. When targeting Encrypt-then-MAC, this attack requires the use of a CBC cipher to be practically exploitable due to the internal workings of the cipher mode. Additionally, this novel attack technique can be used to exploit previously unexploitable implementation flaws in a Man-in-the-Middle scenario.

The attack works by an attacker injecting an arbitrary number of SSHMSGIGNORE messages during the initial key exchange and consequently removing the same number of messages just after the initial key exchange has concluded. This is possible due to missing authentication of the excess SSHMSGIGNORE messages and the fact that the implicit sequence numbers used within the SSH protocol are only checked after the initial key exchange.

In the case of ChaCha20-Poly1305, the attack is guaranteed to work on every connection as this cipher does not maintain an internal state other than the message's sequence number. In the case of Encrypt-Then-MAC, practical exploitation requires the use of a CBC cipher; while theoretical integrity is broken for all ciphers when using this mode, message processing will fail at the application layer for CTR and stream ciphers.

For more details see https://terrapin-attack.com.

Impact

This attack targets the specification of ChaCha20-Poly1305 (chacha20-poly1305@openssh.com) and Encrypt-then-MAC (*-etm@openssh.com), which are widely adopted by well-known SSH implementations and can be considered de-facto standard. These algorithms can be practically exploited; however, in the case of Encrypt-Then-MAC, we additionally require the use of a CBC cipher. As a consequence, this attack works against all well-behaving SSH implementations supporting either of those algorithms and can be used to downgrade (but not fully strip) connection security in case SSH extension negotiation (RFC8308) is supported. The attack may also enable attackers to exploit certain implementation flaws in a man-in-the-middle (MitM) scenario.

References

Affected packages

crates.io / russh

Package

Affected ranges

Type
SEMVER
Events
Introduced
0Unknown introduced version / All previous versions are affected
Fixed
0.40.2

Go / golang.org/x/crypto

Package

Name
golang.org/x/crypto
View open source insights on deps.dev
Purl
pkg:golang/golang.org/x/crypto

Affected ranges

Type
SEMVER
Events
Introduced
0Unknown introduced version / All previous versions are affected
Fixed
0.17.0

PyPI / paramiko

Package

Affected ranges

Type
ECOSYSTEM
Events
Introduced
2.5.0
Fixed
3.4.0

Affected versions

2.*

2.5.0
2.5.1
2.6.0
2.7.0
2.7.1
2.7.2
2.8.0
2.8.1
2.9.0
2.9.1
2.9.2
2.9.3
2.9.4
2.9.5
2.10.0
2.10.1
2.10.2
2.10.3
2.10.4
2.10.5
2.10.6
2.11.0
2.11.1
2.12.0

3.*

3.0.0
3.1.0
3.2.0
3.3.0
3.3.1